sebaceous cyst : causes, symptoms and treatment
The sebaceous cyst is a type of lump that forms under the skin, composed of a substance called sebum, round, measures a few centimeters and can arise in any region of the body. Generally, it is soft to the touch, it can move when touched or hurt when pressed.sebaceous cyst causes and treatment
However, the inflamed sebaceous cyst produces symptoms such as pain, increased temperature in the affected area and the region may become sensitive and reddened, so it requires medical treatment. In this case, the most suitable doctor is the dermatologist who may indicate a small surgery to remove the cyst.
The round, smooth skin lump can also be a lipoma, a type of benign tumor, composed of fat cells, which must also be removed through surgery or lipoaspiration
Causes of sebaceous cysts
The cause of the skin cyst is a blockage of the lumen of the duct of the gland. As a result, the patency of the channel is disrupted, a capsule filled with secret is formed.
The sebaceous glands are located over the entire surface of the body, secrete a substance whose task is to protect and moisturize the skin and hair. The glands are connected by their hatch with the areas where formations occur. These areas include:
- Eyelids, lips, external auditory meatus, anus, nipples, penis, foreskin. The duct is open on the surface of the zone of these areas, therefore, when the duct is blocked, subcutaneous cysts often arise here;
- Hair follicles. The duct opens into the hair follicles throughout the body.
The greatest localization of the sebaceous glands is the facial area. Descending is the area of the neck, back, scalp, chest, pubis, stomach. The smallest glands are in the shoulders, forearms, and lower legs.sebaceous cyst causes and treatment
The main factor in the occurrence of sebaceous gland is blockage of the excretory duct. As a result, the secrete begins to accumulate here, an increase in the volume of which pushes the walls of the duct. A cavity is formed, limited by the walls of the connective tissue.
Factors that create favorable conditions for the appearance of a cyst under the skin include:
- Violations of the metabolic process, as a result of which the consistency of the secretory fluid changes;
- Congenital pathology of the structure. Occasionally, a congenital cyst near the ear is formed in infants due to an abnormality in the development of the skin. This phenomenon does not affect the level of development of the child and is not dangerous;
- Inflammatory processes affecting the upper layer of the skin, damage to the glands;
- Increased sweating (hyperhidrosis). As a result of excessive sweating, sweat accumulates in excess, dries on the skin. This can lead to blockage of the duct, the formation of both neoplasms of the sebaceous and sweat gland cysts;
- Damage, inflammation of the follicle. This condition provokes violations of the outflow of fluid, blockage of the hair bulb, the formation of trichoderma cysts;
- Hormonal disruptions. Often, an increase in male sex hormones (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) contribute to a change in the composition of the secretion. A denser concentration is worse excreted and leads to blockage. Atheromas can form due to a decrease in female sex hormones (estrogens), which also affects the consistency of secretory secretions;
- Acne, acne, skin injury. Injury can occur during independent cosmetic procedures (scrubbing, shaving). During such manipulations, cells of the injured skin can enter the duct of the gland, which often leads to blockage. So illiterate shaving, hair removal of the lower part of the face can provoke a cyst on the chin;
- Poor-quality cosmetics, the use of cosmetics that are not suitable for a particular type of skin. Illiterate selection and use of cosmetic products often provokes clogging of pores, the appearance of cysts of the sebaceous gland on the face (including multiple ones);
- Non-observance of personal hygiene. The smallest particles of dust, dirt land can accumulate on the surface of the skin, lead to a violation of the secretion, the formation of a subcutaneous cyst on the face and body. Therefore, it is important to regularly cleanse the skin, conducting water procedures;
- Genetic factor. One of these pathologies is cystic fibrosis. The disease contributes to the thickening of the secretion of the body, the formation of various formations.sebaceous cyst causes and treatment
Symptoms sebaceous cyst
Atheroma does not have any symptoms. It does not hurt, does not cause discomfort, therefore, only its external manifestations are referred to the signs of a cyst. The diagnosis is made on the basis of examination and palpation of the neoplasm.
Atheroma is characterized by the following manifestations:
- A bulge over the skin that has clear contours.
- Unchanged skin in the cyst, but may acquire a bluish tint.
- It has a dense and elastic structure.
- May slightly shift relative to the surface of the skin.
- A duct of the sebaceous gland is visible on the surface.
But sebaceous cyst can become inflamed, then a number of other symptoms are added to the external manifestations:
- There is redness and swelling in the area of the cyst.
- In some cases, a breakthrough of pus out.
Note! sebaceous in a child is no different from adult education. Therefore, the diagnosis, symptoms and treatment of children occurs in the same way as in adults. The only difference is that in children, epidermal cysts are more often congenital.
Diagnosis of formations occurs already at the first appointment of a dermatologist. The presence of a cyst is determined visually, the doctor feels it, to determine the density and degree of mobility. The most important point of the inspection is the identification of the excretory duct. This indicator is the dominant sign of atheroma, allowing you to distinguish it from other formations of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
In cases of urgent need to remove skin formations, during the operation, the tissue of the capsule, the secret that is contained inside, is taken for histology.sebaceous cyst causes and treatment
Histological examination allows you to accurately differentiate cavity formation, since symptomatic manifestations are similar to various neoplasms:
Of particular importance is the analysis for the differentiation of formations in the armpit, groin, scalp, since in these areas the highest risk of degeneration of a benign tumor into a malignant tumor.
Histology allows you to determine the nature and nature of education, because it is outwardly similar to the syphilitic gum that forms on the knees of the forehead. In the area of the reproductive organs, bartholinitis can be formed, resembling a cavity node at the initial stage. At the initial stage of development, lymphadenitis can be confused with a cyst.
A histological examination allows you to accurately determine the nature and form of the pathology, to determine the medical direction.
In some cases, a study of a neoplasm similar to atheroma is carried out with ultrasound. If a cavity is detected during the study, the possibility of the formation of a sebaceous gland is high.
Various methods of laboratory and instrumental diagnostics are not used, due to their low information content.
Sebaceous cyst treatment
A reliable method of treatment that allows you to get rid of a cavity formation is the removal of a cyst on the face or body. None of the other methods of treatment – the medical, non-traditional method, will not allow to permanently eliminate the pathology, can not guarantee relapse. Even if improvements come, education can form again, after a certain amount of time.
Emergency surgery is performed when an inflammatory process occurs, suppuration. At the first signs of inflammation, it is necessary to turn to surgery to immediately excise cystic formation and prevent complications.
In the absence of inflammatory processes and pus, the cyst is operated on as planned.sebaceous cyst causes and treatment
The main objective of surgical intervention is to remove the formation, cleanse its cavity, and destroy its tissues.
There are several ways to remove an atheroma:
- Conservative surgical excision
- Laser removal.
- Radio wave cyst removal.
Conservative surgical excision
This operation is performed using a scalpel, which is used to cut the skin at the site of formation of the sebaceous gland neoplasm. The dimensions of the formation determine the length of the cut. Then it is removed and completely removed. The wound bed is sewn with non-absorbable sutures, which are subsequently removed by the doctor.
Laser removal of atheroma occurs using three methods, depending on the size of the neoplasm.
- Photocoagulation . It is carried out with an atheroma size of up to 5 mm, it is used even for suppurative formations. The contents of the cyst evaporate, and a crust forms on the surface of the skin. Two weeks later, after complete healing of the tissues, it disappears.
- Laser excision with a sheath . Carried out with a size of education up to 20 mm. First, an incision is made with a scalpel, then the cyst membrane is pulled so that the border with healthy tissue is visible. Then tissue is evaporated to release the cyst, after which it is removed with tweezers. They put drainage inside the wound and suture it.
- Laser vaporization capsules . The method is used to remove formations of more than 20 mm. First, open the capsule with a scalpel, after which the contents of the cyst are removed with tampons. All that remains is the sheath – it is vaporized using a laser, having previously expanded the wound for better access. Then they put drainage and stitches.sebaceous cyst causes and treatment
Radio wave cyst removal
Radio wave removal of atheroma is carried out only with a small cyst. In this case, it should not be festering or inflamed. Radio waves act on cells in a specific area, causing them to die. The cyst disappears, and in its place a crust forms, which eventually disappears. Healing occurs under the crust. This method has many advantages: there are no noticeable scars, it does not require suturing. If atheroma on the head is removed, then you do not need to shave the hair, as with other removal methods. But it is contraindicated in the presence of a pacemaker and the presence of metal implants in the body.
What to do after removal
After removing the atheroma, the patient goes home, where he adheres to the doctor’s recommendations for caring for the place after the operation. This will include the following items:
- do not wet the place after surgery for two days;
- treat the place with an antiseptic daily;
- wear a bandage during the week to prevent infection.
After removing the atheroma, the doctor can prescribe a course of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, a course of physiotherapy. The period of recovery and healing of the wound depends largely on the size of the cyst, the presence of complications and the body’s ability to recover in each individual patient.sebaceous cyst causes and treatment
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